drapeau Croatie Croatia

 
 
carte Croatie
© European Commission
 
  • Accession to the EU: 2013
  • Accession to the Council of Europe : 1996
  • Area : 56.594 km2
  • Population : 4.25 million inhabitants (2014)
  • Capital : Zagreb
  • Official language : Croatian
  • Predominant religion : Catholicism
  • Government type : Parliamentary republic
  • Head of State : Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic elected January 11, 2015
  • Head of Government : Andrej Plenković since Oct, 2016.
  • Official currency : Kuna
  • International code : +385
  • National holiday : June 25
 

History

 
arène de PulaThe history of Croatia is very rich; the country is practically a mosaic of influences. During the last millennium, it has managed to preserve its identity, although it was part of various larger, dominating entities.

Pula Arena
© Milan Babić, ONT Croatie
Text:
CIA World Factbook: Croatia
 
  • 1102 : Croatia signs a treaty which forms a union with the Hungarian Kingdom.
  • 1527 : The Austrian Emperor becomes suzerain of Croatia. This marks the debut of the Habsbourgeois era in Croatia.
  • 1918 : In the wake of the First World War, a kingdom composed of Croatians, Serbs, and Slovenians is created. This kingdom united Croatia with Montenegro and Serbia.
  • 1929 : King Alexander proclaims the kingdom of Yugoslavia, which replaced the previous kingdom of the Croatians, Serbs, and Slovenians, with a dictatorship under the King.
  • 1941 : Germany invades and occupies Yugoslavia. The country was under the control of Germany and Italy.
  • 1945 : In the aftermath of WWII, there was a bloody and intricate civil war in Yugoslavia. The Popular Republic of Croatia becomes one of the six components of the new Republic of Yugoslavia, under the leadership of Croatian Josip Broz, a.k.a. Tito.
 
  • 1991 : Start of the Croatian War of Independence.
  • 1992 : Croatia was recognized by the international community.
  • 1995 : The Dayton Agreement leads to the independence of the Republic of Croatia.
  • 1996 : Croatia joins the Council of Europe.
  • 2002 : Milosevic is extradited to the Hague, where he is accused of crimes against humanity before the International Criminal Court.
  • 2004 : Croatia becomes an official candidate for accession to the European Union.
  • 2005 : The beginning of the negociations of adhesion to the EU.
  • June 30, 2011 : Official end of the negociations for accession to EU.
  • 2012: On January 22, 2012 the Croatians voted to enter the EU (66.67%).
  • 2013 Croatia became the 28th member state of the European Union on July 1st.
 

Zagreb

 
Zaghreb In 1242, Zagreb (called Gradec at the time) was proclaimed a Free Town of the Kingdom by the Golden Bull of Croatia-Hungary, King Bela IV. Later, in 1557, Zagreb was proclaimed the capital of the Croatian state for the first time . This facilitated the transfer of the Croatian government from Varaždin to Zagreb at the end of the 18th century.
When it comes to culture in Croatia, the city of Zagreb is pinnacle of art. It hosts 38 cultural institutions, including 10 city museums, the most significant of which are the Zagreb Municipal Museum, the Museum for Arts and Crafts. and the Museum of Contemporary Art.

Picture: street of Zagreb © Ivo Pervan, ONT Croatie
Text: www.zagreb.hr: The City of Zagreb, Official Site
 

Natural heritage

 

lacs de PlivitzWith an exceptionnally pure ocean and around 1200 islands, as well as tropical forests, rivers and lakes, Croatia is proud of its beautiful nature, made all the more remarkable by the fact that it is situated just hundreds of kilometers away from Rome, Milan, Vienna, and Budapest. One-twelfth of the Croatian territory is protected: there are more than 7 national parks, 6 natural parks, and 2 natural reserves (including one of the biggest ornithological reserves in Europe).

The Plitvice national park is considered a World Heritage site, and the archipelago of Kornati has 16 lakes connected to one another by more than 100 cascades. With 140 islands, it is the most dense archipelago in the Mediterranean. You can also find the Paklenica canyon in the huge Velebit mountains, famous for its rare beauty.

Picture: Plitvice © Ivo Pervan, ONT Croatie

 
 

Did you know?

 
.
  • Alphabet
The Croatians have their own alphabet, known as glagolitic. This alphabet was created in the 9th century, and was used up until the debut of the 18th century. After this period, the Croatians adopted the Latin alphabet.

  • The tie
croate cravateIn 1635, 6,000 Croatian soldiers were brought to Paris to protect the Court of Louis XIII. The Croatian uniform, which includes the modern day tie, intrigued the French Court. The tie thus became a popular accessory among the French Bourgeoisie. The French word for "tie" is "cravate"; it derives from the Croatian word "Hrvat".



© lecravatier.com

  • The Dalmatian
dalmatienThis famous dog breed comes from Dalmatia, a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The Dalmatian is known for its endurance, elegance and endearing nature. It was raised to guard the barouches and the horses. In Victorian England, it was called the "Spotted Coach Dog".




© wikimediacommons

  • The White House
The famous White House in Washington was constucted with white marble stone from the Croatian island Brac.
 
 
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European diary


    • 23 june 2017

      Luxembourg National Day

    • June 23th marks the anniversary of the sovereign of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Originally celebrated on 23 January, the birthday of the Grande-Duchesse Charlotte, June 23 was chosen since 1961 due to climatic conditions which fit with outdoor celebrations.
      On this day, two major events punctuate the celebrations: the Te Deum in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Luxembourg and the taking up of arms, accompanied by a civilian event, organized the Liberty avenue in Luxembourg.
    • 25 june 2017

      Slovenia National Day

    • The National Day commemorates the independence of Slovenia, obtained in 1991.
      The first Slovenes, the Slavic people, settled down in current Slovenia, at the borders of the Italy, Austria and Hungary, during the fourth century.
      Since the eighth century, Slovenia was incorporated into various empires or states. The last one was ex-Yugoslavia from which it would become independent in 1991.
      Its independance was recognized by Germany in December, 1991 and by the international community in January of the following year.

    • 26 june 2017

      International Day in Support of Victims of Torture

    • Torture seeks to annihilate the victim’s personality and denies the inherent dignity of the human being. The United Nations has condemned torture from the outset as one of the vilest acts perpetrated by human beings on their fellow human beings.

      Torture is a crime under international law. According to all relevant instruments, it is absolutely prohibited and cannot be justified under any circumstances. This prohibition forms part of customary international law, which means that it is binding on every member of the international community, regardless of whether a State has ratified international treaties in which torture is expressly prohibited. The systematic or widespread practice of torture constitutes a crime against humanity.

      On 12 December 1997, by resolution 52/149, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 26 June the United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, with a view to the total eradication of torture and the effective functioning of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, (resolution 39/46), annex, which entered into force on 26 June 1987.